Arduino is a computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures microcontrollers kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical world. This board exposes most of the microcontroller’s I/O pins for use by other circuits. It provide digital I/O pins, some can produce PWM signals, and  analog inputs, which can also be used as digital I/O pins. These pins are on the top of the board, via female 0.1-inch (2.54 mm) headers. Several plug-in application shields are also commercially available. The Arduino boards may provide male header pins on the underside of the board that can plug into solderless breadboard.Arduino is pre-programmed with a bootloader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory. The default bootloader of the Aduino optiboot


Arduino Software

The open-source Arduino Software (IDE) makes it easy to write code and upload it to the board. It runs on Windows, Mac OS X, and Linux. The environment is written in Java and based on Processing and other open-source software.
This software can be used with any Arduino board.

The Arduino Integrated Development Environment – or Arduino Software (IDE) – contains a text editor for writing code, a message area, a text console, a toolbar with buttons for common functions and a series of menus. It connects to the Arduino and Genuino hardware to upload programs and communicate with them.

Features of Arduino Software

  • Support for multiple platforms
  • Boards are detected and listed on “ports list” menu together with the serial port
  • Drivers and IDE are now signed for Windows and MacOSX
  • Improved speed of build process
  • Autosave when compiling/uploading sketch
  • A lot of improvements of the serial monitor (faster, backed by modern JSSC serial library instead of old RXTX)
  • Find/replace over multiple tabs
  • Improved lots of Arduino API libraries (String, Serial, Print, etc.)
  • Tools & toolchains upgrades (avr-gcc, arm-gcc, avrdude, bossac)
  • Command line interface
  • IDE reports both sketch size and static RAM usage
  • Editor shows line numbers
  • Scrollable menus when many entries are listed
  • Upload via network (Yún)
  • HardwareSerial has been improved
  • USB has got some stability and performance improvements
  • SPI library now supports “transactions” for better interoperability when using multiple SPI devices at the same time
  • Better support to 3rd party hardware vendors with configuration files (platform.txt and boards.txt)
  • Submenus with board configuration can now be defined
  • Fix for upload problems on Leonardo, Micro and Yún.
  • Libraries bundled with Arduino have been improved and bugfixed, in particular: Bridge, TFT, Ethernet, Robot_Control, SoftwareSerial, GSM
  • A lot of minor bugs of the user interface have been fixed


How to use Arduino Software


Title                                                           Arduino Open Source Software
Filename                                                  arduino.exe
File size                                                    84.015 MB 
Requirements                                         Window/ XP / Vista / Windows 7/ Windows 8 / Windows 10
Languages                                               Multiple languages
License                                                     Freeware
, , , , ,

How to use Proteus for circuit design

Important: As Proteus does not bound us to connect power supply, XTAL,reset circuit,EA pin and other basic connections so we are ignoring them for sake of simplicity. The important things like Xtal frequency of micro controller can be set from properties of micro controller, as discussed below.

While in actual hardware form for you must follow basic circuit shown at very beginning of this post.
1) Open Proteus



2) Click on “P to open up part list.
Locate AT89C51 IC as shown below:




3) Locate LEDs as shown below



4) Make connections from 8051 to LEDs


5)Locate GND terminal as shown below

6) Connect all LEDs to GND

7) Double click on 8051 IC to open up its properties window.

— Set the operating frequency i-e 12.0MHz
— Give controller the desired HEX file.
8) Click on Play Button to start simulation



led front
, , , , ,



This tutorial gives you an explanation of following things:-

  1. What is LED & what does it’s means?
  2. Operation & Principle.
  3. Modes  & Testing.
  4. Logic to operate of LED with microcontrollers.



Light Emitting Diode, mainly called LED, It is real hero & very basic first component in the electronics & electrical world due to its lots of different jobs and are found in all kinds of devices.Among other things, they form alpha numeric numbers on digital clocks & led display, transmit information from remote controls to device, light up digital watches & tell you when your appliances are turned on or not. Combined together, they can form images on a LED television screen or illuminate a traffic light. Led are most widely used means of taking output from devices. They find wide range application as indicators while experimenting to check the validation of results at different stages. Led is very economical and easily available in electronics shops & market with variety of shape, size and colors according to requirements of user.

Principle & Operation

LED worked on Electroluminescence Principle, A LED is a p-n junction semiconductor device which emits incoherent light when biased in forward direction(the positive terminal is to be connected to the anode & negative terminal of supply is to be connected to cathode of Led). Most of the LEDs are realized using a highly doped n and a p Junction. It has two regions one is p-region and another is n-region, this two combine and make a junction. The p region is have more +ve electric charges as compare to n-region and the n region is have more -ve electric charges as compare to p-region.

Operation of Led is very simple to understand, Basically Two type of Basing in Led:-

  1.  Forward Biasing
  2. Reverse Biasing

Forward Biasing

In this mode, the positive terminal (+ve) of the cell or battery is connected to the anode of the LED & the negative terminal (-ve) is connected to the cathode terminal of the LED.

                               FORWARD BAISING OF LED

When a forward voltage +ve terminal of voltage is connected with +ve (anode) terminal of led and –ve terminal of voltage is connected with -ve (cathode) terminal of led is applied to an LED, the potential barrier of the P-N junction become smaller, then causing electron & holes recombine & reaches the higher energy state and higher energy state is unstable so that it release the energy in form of light (photons).

In short When we applied a voltage source across the terminals of led, means +ve terminal of source to anode of led & -ve to cathode then electron & holes recombine & reaches the higher energy state and higher energy state is unstable so that it release the energy in form of light (photons). This process is called electroluminescence & color of light depends on the gap between the semiconductor materials, as shown below

led circuitled circuit 1

Reverse Biasing

                               REVERSE BAISED OF LED

If LED is reverse biased, then the electrons of n-type region are pulled towards the terminal. Similarly the holes of the p-type region are pulled towards the terminal. This causes the widening of the depletion region in the p-n semiconductor. The widening of the depletion region increases the resistance of the diode so that it works as an open circuit when reverse biased.The reverse current flows due to the minority charge carriers (very few) in the semiconductors after the breakdown. The reason for the breakdown is the electric field inside the diode created by the depletion.

Testing & Determination of Led Terminals

As you can see below image of Led in which symbol & physical view is there. Now if we talk about the Led symbol on left side of picture there will be one line or plate which act as a cathode & other side is anode. Right side of image of led it has 2 legs, major one is anode & shorter one is cathode of led.

led termianls

There is another way to find cathode & anode of led by using front & top view of led as shown below. As in front view you will find two plates one thick & other is thin, so thick one cathode & thin one is anode of led.

led view

In top view of led you will find a D shape in which straight line is anode & curve shape is cathode.

One more approach to find out the terminals of led by looking the outer lower area of led, you will found there will be a cut surface in lower circle area of led, that cut area beside leg is always a cathode. Apart from this method we need volt meter & led tester for testing of led

LED CloseUp

Led Interfacing with Microcontrollers

Most of the commonly available LEDs have dropped a voltage of 1.3 V to 2.2 V and require 7 to 10 mA to glow Led at full intensity. The following picture describes “how to glow a led”.

led with cell

But we know that our most of microcontrollers give an output of 3 to 5V & 60mA corresponding to pins. If we connect Led directly to any of ports pins as shown below picture then direct 3v to 5v of the port is applied to an LED, so that LED may get damaged.

led when demage

If we connect the led as above, led will glow for very small time with high brightness and burn out. Because large current will be sink via LED from source due to high voltage. Sometimes this large current may damage our microcontrollers Port and then IC.

To limit the current allowed into LED we need to divide the voltage by adding a resistor to the circuit by finding the value of resistor according to ohm’s law.

R=(Vcontroller – Vled)/I

If we want to allow 10mA current through the LED then resistor value will be as below:-

R = (Vcc-led voltage)/current.

R = (5-1.7)/10mA.

R= 330 Ohms.

Resistor values will vary 220 ohm to 470 ohm according to value of Led voltage.

led with resistance


In above picture, we connected a 330 ohms resistor to allow 10mA current through the LED for its glow. If we reduce the value of led then will be glow brighter than previously.

Logic to Glow the LED from Microcontrollers.

As we already explained that led will work on forward biasing means +ve to anode & -ve to cathode of led, similar way in digital electronics +5V means HIGH or Logic 1(one) & -Ve means LOW or Logic 0(zero).


So its means when Logic 1 or HIGH applied across to anode & LOW or Logic 0 to cathode then Led will Glow.

Configuration of connection of led with Microcontrollers

Led operate in two configuration, because of this reason if we connect the both terminals of led to microcontroller then it consume more pin of IC & programming values also become complex in both configuration only half of pin used as compared to normal configuration & only differance in both configuration is logic .

  1. Common Cathode or Logic 1
  2. Common Anode or Logic 0

Common Cathode

Led have two terminal one +ve and second -ve.

In common cathode all the –ve terminal externally connected with Ground. And all + ve terminal connected with microcontroller.

cc config

Common Anode

Led have two terminal one +ve and  second  -ve.

In common Anode all the +ve terminal externally connected with vcc (Power Supply). And all – ve terminal connected with microcontroller.

ca config